Ovarian Cyst Symptoms
Symptoms can range from mild to severe. It may be possible that you might have ovarian cyst and may not realize it until you have severe pain, abdominal bloating and pressure, painful intercourse and frequent urination.
Symptoms of ovarian cancer are similar to those of ovarian cyst. They include:
- Abdominal swelling or bloating
- Abdominal pressure and pain
- Feeling overstuffed or having trouble eating
- Painful intercourse
- Frequent or urgent urination
- Menstrual irregularities
Overview Of Ovarian Cancer
Before you get to know what ovarian cancer is all about, let us first know about ovaries in short. The ovaries are part of female reproductive system. They are small organs located deep within your pelvis. Their function is to produce the women’s eggs, egg’s grow inside them within a sac or follicle and produce female hormones. The size and shape of each ovary is of an almond. Will focus on ovarian cyst and its symptoms as well.
Cancer of the ovary is very common in females. Ovarian cancer forms in the ovary. It begins with the abnormal and rapid growth of the normal cell that metastasis to other organs as well. There are no early symptoms of this cancer. Symptoms become more noticeable as the cancer progresses.
The risk of this cancer increases in women who have already ovulated more over their lifetime including the one’s who never had children, those who begin ovulation at younger age or one’s those reach menopause at an early age. The most common type of ovarian cancer is ovarian carcinoma which further includes 5 subtypes under it, and of which high grade serous carcinoma is the most common. Less common types of ovarian cancer includes germ cell tumors and sex cord stromal tumors.
What Are Ovarian Cyst ?
Having ovarian cyst or tumor doesn’t mean you have, or you’ll develop ovarian cancer. No. Many women get ovarian cyst or benign ovarian tumors at some point of time during their reproductive years. Most will never develop ovarian cancer.
As mentioned above that ovaries produce egg’s within them in the sac or follicle. Then during ovulation the egg is released from its sac into one of the fallopian tubes. After which the sac typically dissolves but sometimes the sac can remain and fill with air or fluid to develop into a cyst. Cysts that form in or around your ovaries often go unnoticed and that is where the problem begins. They may cause only mild ovarian cyst symptoms.
Its rare, but some ovarian cysts are malignant or cancerous. Mostly are benign or not cancerous.
Types Of Ovarian Cysts
Ovarian cyst is not a single thing there are many types of ovarian cyst. The cyst that forms during menstrual cycle are functional cysts. Functional cysts have further two types follicle and corpus luteum cysts.
Further ovarian endometriomas, ovarian cystadenomas, ovarian dermoid cysts or teratomas are other types of ovarian cysts and tumors too.
Diagnosis And Clinical Evaluation Of Ovarian Cancer
- A history of nonspecific gastrointestinal complaints, including: nausea, dyspepsia and altered bowel habits is particularly seen.
- Abdominal distention is a result of ascites are signs of advanced disease.
- Menstrual abnormalities, may be seen in as many as 15% of reproductive-age patients with an ovarian neoplasm.
- Vaginal bleeding may occur in individuals with ovarian cancer in the presence of a synchronous endometrial carcinoma or as a consequence of metastatic disease in the lower genital tract.
- Physical examination
- Abdominal examination: abdominal distention is one of the more common findings. the presence of flank fullness and shifting dullness implies the presence of ascites or a large pelvic-abdominal mass.
- Lymph node examination: the supraclavicular and inguinal area, Sister Mary Joseph’s nodule refers to a metastatic implant in the umbilicus.
- Pelvic examination: in this examination it provides many helpful clues about the etiology of a pelvic mass like benign mass is of smooth, cystic and unilateral and malignant mass is of fixed, irregular, bilateral.
- Tumor markers: an antigenic determinant on a high- molecular – wieght glycoprotein recognized by the murine monoclonal antibody OC-125. 85% of individuals having epithelial ovarian cancer have >35U/ml. Rather it should have an upper limit of normal- 35U/ml and postmenopausal women : lower cutoffs, 20U/ml.
- CA 125 can be elevated: less frequently if elevated in mucinous, clear cell and borderline tumors are compared to serous tumors. In other malignancies (pancreas, breast, colon, and lung cancer).
- Women with strong genetic risk of ovarian cancer can go for the surgical removal of their ovaries as a preventive measure, as it is 95% sure they will have the ovarian cancer because it is already their in the patients family history. The surgical removal of ovaries is done only only after completion of childbearing years, this may help not developing breast and ovarian cancer.
- Women with BRCA gene mutations, usually also have their fallopian tubes removed at the same time , since they have an increased risk of having fallopian tube cancer.
- People with significant family history for ovarian cancer are often referred to as genetic counselor to see if they should be tested for BRCA mutations. Taking oral contraceptives as to not have periods during mentrual cycle are at risk. So STOP taking the oral contraceptives.
- Stop smoking.