What Is Prostate Cancer ?
Prostate cancer is a cancer that initiates in the prostate. A prostate is a gland of male reproductive system. Prostatitis is the swelling in the inflammation (swelling) in the prostate cancer. Prostate gland is a walnut-sized shape gland, found in pelvis, and is wrapped around urethra. The prostate gland secretes liquid portion of semen or seminal fluid, which carries the sperm made by testes. It is second most leading cause of cancer deaths in men.
Some prostate cancer grow very rapidly but some are slow growing. Prostate cancer comprises of adenocarcinoma cells. These adenocarcinoma cells are the cells that arise from the glandular tissue. The cancerous cells start spreading from the prostate to the other parts of the body, like bones and lymph nodes. Not just because the cancer has reached the bone, it is not then called bone cancer. It is prostate cancer metastatic to the bones. Just like all other cancer prostate cancer too does not show any symptoms. But if prostate cancer has reached to later stages it might show symptoms like difficulty in urine, blood in urine, pain in pelvis back or when urinating.
What Are The Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer ?
The certain factors may put the person at risk. The following risk factors may include:
- Age: 60% of cases of prostate cancer arise in men over 65 years of age. It is rare in men under 40.
- Race or Ethnicity: African-American men and Jamaican men of African ancestry are diagnosed with prostate cancer more often than are men of other races and ethnicities. Asian and Hispanic men are less likely to develop prostate cancer than are non Hispanic white males.
- Family History: This may be another risk factor, if its there in your parents or great grand parents then it is obvious you or further generation of yours might cause cancer.
- Genetic Factors: Mutations in portions of the DNA called the BRCA2 gene can increase a man’s risk of getting prostate cancer, as well as other cancers. Other inherited genes associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer include : RNASEL, BRCA 2, DNA mismatch genes and HoxB13.
- Other Factors: Diets high in red meats and fatty foods and low in fruits and vegetables appear to be associated with a higher risk of developing prostate cancer. Obesity may too be one of the risk factor.
Prostate Cancer Symptoms ?
- Frequent urges to urinate, including at night
- Difficulty commencing and maintaining urination
- Blood in the urine
- Pain while urinating, and less commonly, ejaculation
- Difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection may be difficult
Later stages of prostatitis may include:
- Bone pain, often in the spine, femur, pelvis or ribs
- Bone fracture
If the cancer spreads to the spine and compresses the spinal cord , there might be
- Leg weakness
- Urinary incontinence
- Fecal incontinence
Medication Of Prostatitis
Some of the medications that an individual can take are non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) it reduces the risk off prostate cancer.
- Prostate imaging :
ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are the two main imaging methods used for prostate cancer detection. Ultrasound has poor tissue resolution and thus is generally not clinically used. Prostate MRI has better soft tissue resolution than ultrasound.
- Biopsy :
If cancer is diagnosed, a biopsy is offered. During a biopsy urologist or radiologist obtains tissue samples from the prostate via the rectum. A biopsy gun inserts and removes special hollow-core needles in less than a second. Antibiotics should be given to prevent complications like fever, urinary tract infections , and sepsis.
- Tumor markers :
Tissue sample can be stained for the presence of PSA and other tumor markers in order to determine the origin of malignant cells that have metastasized.
Small cell carcinoma is very rare type of prostate cancer that cannot be diagnosed using the PSA.
Oncoprotein BCL-2 is associated with the development of androgen-independent prostate cancer, due to its high levels of expression in androgen-independent tumors in advanced stages of the pathology. The expression of Ki-67 by immunohistochemistry may be a significant predictor of patient outcome for men with prostate cancer.